31 July 2019

Complex Deep Learning with Quantum Optics



The rapid evolution towards future telecommunications infrastructures (e.g., 5G, the fifth generation of mobile networks) and the internet is renewing a strong interest for artificial intelligence (AI) methods, systems, and networks. 

Processing big data to infer patterns at high speeds and with low power consumption is becoming an increasing central technological challenge. Electronics are facing physically fundamental bottlenecks, whilst nanophotonics technologies are considered promising candidates to overcome the limitations of electronics. 

Today, there are evidences of an emerging research field, rooted in quantum optics, where the technological trajectories of deep neural networks (DNNs) and nanophotonics are crossing each other.

This paper elaborates on these topics and proposes a theoretical architecture for a Complex DNN made from programmable metasurfaces; an example is also provided showing a striking correspondence between the equivariance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and the invariance principle of gauge transformations.

Paper available at the following link:

12 March 2019

5G EdgeCloud - part 2


Cloudification” of telecommunications infrastructures and MEC/Edge-Cloud are leveraging on the exploitation of the (almost) full “virtualization” of both resources (e.g., processing, storage and networking) and network/service functions (e.g., Virtual Network Functions) up to the edge (i.e., access, distribution segments), or even beyond it up to the terminals or smart things (i.e., Fog Computing). 

MEC/Edge-Cloud is just a piece of the overall puzzle, as the border with Cloud Computing is disappearing soon !

This innovation trend in offering the opportunity of extending the business role of telecommunication Operators to play the role not only of Service Providers (for SaaS) but also the roles of both IaaS Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) Provider and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Provider, in global markets.

This creates the conditions for boosting new open ecosystems, easing life to Applications and Service Developers.

In order to materialize this vision, there should be a clear definition of what are the services offered by the 5G IaaS and PaaS and the related open/standard APIs to access them.

For example, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) layer offers:
  • Raw virtual resources for connectivity, processing, storage;
  • Virtual Network Functions and other Network Services (e.g., middleboxes such as bridges, routers, load balancers, firewalls, video optimizers, etc).

Platform as a Service (PaaS) layer provides a controlled access - through standard interfaces API - to underneath IaaS. Moreover, PaaS include, for example:
  • Operating Systems services, services and apps development instruments and tools, database management capabilities, business analysis, A.I. tools, etc

The following picture is summarizing a number of possible business models, capable of re-defining the equilibria in the overall Industry.




08 March 2019

5G EdgeCloud - part 1

It was mid 2013 when we published one of the first visionary papers on EdgeCloud, in the IEEE Communications Magazine. 


After six years, MEC/EdgeCloud indefinitely under the spot in industry, worldwide.  In fact, MEC/EdgeCloud is expected to play a key strategic role in this Digital Transformation towards 5G.







There are evidences that, today, Network and Service Providers are exploring different strategies for MEC/Edge Cloud introduction and exploitation, mainly (but not only) motivated by the potential opportunities for: (i) saving costs in the Digital Transformation of the network and service infrastructures; (ii) generating new revenues, e.g., by improving performance of current services and enabling new ones, with the related business models.

These topics are addressed by several standardization bodies and fora.
A non- exhaustive list includes:
ETSI MEC
OpenFog
ONF CORD
Telecom Infra Project (WGs on Edge Computing)
EdgeX Foundry
Open Edge Computing
MobiledgeX
Akraino
In general, the overall standardization picture is rather fragmented but these bodies are addressing MEC/Edge from different perspectives (they are not fully overlapping) and there is a common awareness that global interoperability is a “must” for enabling new services ecosystems.

This means that Industry need to align on open and common APIs capable to ease Service and Apps Developers: in fact, this is crucial to promotes innovation and accelerates development by Third Parties applications and services, capable of enabling Network and Service Providers to capitalize on their investments on EdgeCloud.